1. The quantity is equal to:

2. One reason why the sky appears blue is because:

3. If μ1 and phi2 are solutions to the wave equation, which of the following is not also a solution, if a and b are real constants.

4. The direction of propagation of an electromagnetic wave is the same as:

5. Photons always propagate with speed c, but light appears to travel at a speed different from c in dense media. How can we account for this phenomenon?

6. Which of the following is true: I) A reflected beam always has the same irradiance as the incident beam; II) a reflected beam lies in the same plane as the incident beam; III) a reflected beam always makes an angle θ = sin-1(nt/ni) with the normal to the interface.

7. The irradiance of a light ray is proportional to:

8. The phase velocity of the wave described by ψ = A sin(kx + σt + Π/2) is:

9. The period of the wave described by ψ = A cos(kx + σt + Π) is:

10. If we have electric and magnetic fields given by:

E = E0cos(kz - σt)    
B = B0cos(kz - σt)    

In SI units, what conditions need to be satisfied if these fields are to satisfy Maxwell's equations?

11. Which of the following functions of space and time defines a wave with speed v in the negative x direction?

12. The profile of a wave with equation ψ(x, t) = is equal to:

13. Maxwell's equations: I) predict the speed of an electromagnetic wave to be μ0ε0; II) imply that an electric field changing in time will produce a magnetic field; III) impose boundary conditions that must be satisfied at an interface between two media.

14. Which of the following is correct:

15. The wavelength of a photon with an energy of 3.6 eV is:

16. Which of the following would not be a good description of a photon:

17. A photon has a chance of being absorbed by an atom, only if:

18. Fermat's principle states that:

19. Light behaves in accordance with Fermat's principle because:

20. The Fresnel Equations: I) are a consequence of Maxwell's equations; II) imply a phase shift of 180o when light in vacuum with electric field perpendicular to the plane of incidence reflects from a surface; III) imply that polarization can be achi eved by reflection.

21. Total internal reflection can occur:

22. The critical angle for an air-water interface (the index of refraction of water is n = 1.33) is about:

23. The spectrum observed when white light is shone through a prism is best explained by:

24. For a substance with natural frequencies in the infra-red range the color that will exhibit a higher index of refraction, and the type of dispersion are respectively:

25. An expression for the absolute index of refraction is:

26. A light wave in air enters a substance in which light travels at 2.64×108 m/s at an angle of 48o to the surface. The angle of refraction is:

27. Which of the following is a correct expression for the relative amplitude of a reflected ray (electric field perpendicular to the incident plane)?

28. Images formed by a convex mirror are:

29. For a concave mirror of focal length 5 centimeters, the image of an object placed 7 centimeters from the mirror will be:

30. A convex lens has a focal length of 3 centimeters. How far from the mirror is the object, if the image formed is 4 centimeters away?

31. What is the focal length of a plano-convex (planar on one side and convex on the other) lens made of glass with index of refraction n = 1.40 and with the curved side having a radius of curvature of 20 centimeters?

32. What is the magnification of an image formed by an object 10 centimeters distant from a concave mirror of focal length 2 centimeters.

33. Concave mirrors can suffer from:

34. Concave lenses can suffer from:

35. Virtual images are so called because:

36. To form a diminished image with a convex lens, the object must be placed:

37. The radius of curvature of a convex mirror of focal length -8 centimeters is:

38. All images formed by diverging lenses are:

39. Which of the following is true for all lenses:

40. If xi is the distance between the image and the focal point on the same side of the lens (for a convex lens), an alternate expression for the transverse magnification is:

41. Which of the following is not a consequence of interference effects?

42. In Young's Double Slit Experiment, increasing the wavelength of light will serve to:

43. In a Young's Double Slit interference pattern, the fourth maximum has an irradiance that is roughly:

44. If the finite width of the slits was taken into account, one would expect the fourth maximum of the double slit interference pattern to be:

45. For a single slit, light is heading in a direction such that rays from a point source in the middle of the slit travels exactly λ farther than light at the very edge of the slit. The point at which this light arrives on a distant screen will be:

46. If β = , the zeroes of irradiance for a single slit occur when:

47. Light reflecting from a dense medium is:

48. Randomly polarized light moving along the x axis in the positive x-direction is incident on an atomic oscillator at the origin. If you are at the point (0, y0, 0), you will observe:

49. A birefringent material is best described as:

50. Light is propagating is a direction directly away from you, with an electric field that appears to be rotating in its orientation in the counterclockwise direction. The polarization state of such a wave is:

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