Terms Associated with Circles
The circumference of a circle is its "perimeter," or the distance around its edge. If we broke the circle and bent it into one flat line, the length of this line would be its circumference:
The diameter of a circle is a line segment from one point on the edge of the circle to another point on the edge, passing through the center of the circle. It is the longest line segment that cuts across the circle from one point to another. There are many different diameters, but they all have the same length:
The radius of a circle is a line segment from the center of the circle to a point on the edge of the circle. It is half of a diameter, and thus its length is half the length of the diameter. Again, there are many radii, but they all have the same length. In the following diagram, a, b, and c are all radii:
The area of a circle is the total number of square units that fill the circle. The area of the following circle is about 13 units. Note that we count fractional units inside the circle as well as whole units.
Formula for the Circumference of a Circle
Mathematicians have discovered a special number, called pi (represented by Π), which is the ratio of the circumference of any circle to the length of its diameter. Π is roughly equal to 3.14--most scientific calculators have a "Π" button that will produce more digits. Π is a non- terminating, non- repeating decimal; thus, Π is an irrational number.
Since Π is the ratio of the circumference to the diameter, Π = c/d; c = Π×d; and d = c/Π; where c and d are the circumference and the diameter, respectively. The most important equations to remember are the last two.