Although Achilles possesses superhuman strength and has
a close relationship with the gods, he may strike modern readers
as less than heroic. He has all the marks of a great warrior, and
indeed proves the mightiest man in the Achaean army, but his deep-seated character
flaws constantly impede his ability to act with nobility and integrity.
He cannot control his pride or the rage that surges up when that
pride is injured. This attribute so poisons him that he abandons
his comrades and even prays that the Trojans will slaughter them,
all because he has been slighted at the hands of his commander, Agamemnon.
Achilles is driven primarily by a thirst for glory. Part of him
yearns to live a long, easy life, but he knows that his personal
fate forces him to choose between the two. Ultimately, he is willing
to sacrifice everything else so that his name will be remembered.
Like most Homeric characters, Achilles does not develop
significantly over the course of the epic. Although the death of
Patroclus prompts him to seek reconciliation with Agamemnon, it
does not alleviate his rage, but instead redirects it toward Hector.
The event does not make Achilles a more deliberative or self-reflective
character. Bloodlust, wrath, and pride continue to consume him.
He mercilessly mauls his opponents, brazenly takes on the river
Xanthus, ignobly desecrates the body of Hector, and savagely sacrifices
twelve Trojan men at the funeral of Patroclus. He does not relent
in this brutality until the final book of the epic, when King Priam,
begging for the return of Hector’s desecrated corpse, appeals to
Achilles’ memory of his father, Peleus. Yet it remains unclear whether
a father’s heartbroken pleas really have transformed Achilles, or whether
this scene merely testifies to Achilles’ capacity for grief and acquaintance
with anguish, which were already proven in his intense mourning
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