full title The Hobbit, or There and Back Again
author J. R. R. Tolkien
type of work Novel
genre Fantasy, heroic quest, satire, comic epic, children’s story
time and place written Roughly between 1929 and 1936 in Oxford, England; since the story was first told orally to Tolkien’s children, there is some doubt as to the exact dates of its composition.
date of first publication 1937
publisher Houghton Mifflin
narrator The anonymous narrator is playful and humorous. He tends to speak in a comic voice with frequent asides and humorous descriptions of the characters. Bilbo, for instance, is often called Mr. Baggins or “the poor little fellow.”
point of view The novel is narrated in the third person, almost exclusively from Bilbo’s point of view. The narration is omniscient, which means that the narrator not only relates Bilbo’s thoughts and feelings but also comments on them.
tone The narrator’s tone is light and casual, and he encourages his readers not to take his story too seriously by making frequent jokes at his characters’ expense. The narrator’s tone periodically becomes darker when the company faces great danger or defeat (as in the chapters taking place in Mirkwood), but for the most part, the story is brightly and warmly narrated.
setting (time) The Third Age of Middle-Earth, 2941–2942
settings (place) Various locales in the imaginary world of Middle-Earth
protagonist Bilbo Baggins, a hobbit
major conflict Bilbo’s timidity, complacency, and uncertainty work against his inner strength and heroism. As he travels and embarks on adventures, he must gradually learn to rely on his own abilities and to take the initiative to do what he feels is right.
rising action Gandalf visits Bilbo and orders him to act as the burglar for the dwarves’ expedition to regain Thorin’s treasure from Smaug. Bilbo reluctantly departs, and with each increasingly difficult adventure, he accepts more responsibility for the welfare of the group.
climax After Bilbo kills a spider in Chapter 8, he finally has enough confidence in his own abilities as a leader and hero. The Battle of the Five Armies in Chapter 17 is the climax of the expedition.
falling action Bilbo and Gandalf begin the journey home after regaining the treasure, resolving the differences between the dwarves, elves, and men, and defeating the Wargs and goblins. They first spend time with Beorn, then sojourn in Rivendell before returning to Hobbiton. Bilbo has a newfound appreciation for the comforts of his dwelling, but he recognizes that his view of society and his surroundings has undergone profound change.
themes Bilbo’s heroism; race, lineage, and character
motifs Contrasting worldviews, the nature and geography of Middle-Earth
symbols Named swords, hobbits
foreshadowing The description of Bilbo’s Took blood; Gandalf’s insistence that there is more to Bilbo than meets the eye; Gollum’s addresses to his mysterious “precious”; Beorn’s warnings not to leave the path in Mirkwood; the thrush’s interest in Bilbo’s description of Smaug’s weakness