Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, & Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films.3rd ed. New York: Continuum Publishing, 2000.
Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film. 4th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004.
Cripps, Thomas. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900–1942. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Dirks, Tim. Review of The Birth of a Nation. Available online http://www.filmsite.org/birt.html. Downloaded August 2004.
Gish, Lillian, and Ann Pinchot. Lillian Gish: The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1969.
Gunning, Tom. D. W. Griffith and the Origins of American Narrative Film: The Early Years at Biograph. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Lang, Robert, ed. The Birth of a Nation: D. W. Griffith, Director. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
Panzer, Mary. Mathew Brady and the Image of History. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press for the National Portrait Gallery, 1997.
Schickel, Richard. D. W. Griffith: An American Life. New York: Limelight Editions, 1996.
Simmon, Scott. The Films of D. W. Griffith. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.