Problem : List and explain two characteristics of bryophytes that demonstrate their dependence on a damp environment.

1) Bryophytes have flagellated sperm, which depend on water for transport to female gametes.
2) Bryophytes lack developed vascular systems for internal fluid transport.

Problem : What purpose do the gemmae of liverworts serve?

Asexual reproduction.

Problem : Describe a way in which bryophyte spores have adapted to uncertain terrestrial conditions.

Bryophyte spores are encased in tough cell walls which allow them to remain inactive for potentially long periods of time until environmental conditions are favorable for the new gametophytes to develop.

Problem : What are the three parts of a moss sporophyte? Does this sporophyte live independently of the parent plant?

Each moss sporophyte has three parts: a foot (which is embedded in the parent gametophyte), a stalk (which extends upward from the plant), and a sporangium-containing capsule. The sporophyte is not independent of the parent plant, but depends on the parent for some of its water and nutrients.